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论点的支持性材料

An Important Difference between Writing and Talking
1. In everyday conversation, you make all kinds of points or assertions. The people you are talking with do not always challenge you to give reasons for your statements.
2. But if you want to communicate effectively with readers, you must provide solid evidence for any point you make. An important difference, then, between writing and talking is this: In writing, any idea that you advance must be supported with specific reasons or details.
 
Point and Support in a Paragraph
1. A paragraph usually consists of an opening point, called a topic sentence, followed by a series of sentences that support that point.
2. The evidence that supports the point in a paper often consists of a series of reasons followed by examples and details that support the reasons. Supporting evidence in a paper can also consist of anecdotes, personal experiences, facts, studies, statistics, and the opinions of experts.
 
Point and Support in an Essay
1. The traditional college essay typically consists of an introductory paragraph, three or more supporting paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. 
2. The central idea, or point, developed in any essay is called a thesis statement (rather than, as in a paragraph, a topic sentence). The thesis appears in the introductory paragraph, and the specific support for the thesis appears in the paragraphs that follow. The supporting paragraphs allow for a fuller treatment of the evidence that backs up the central point than would be possible in a single-paragraph paper. 
3. Unlike paragraphs that are usually developed using one mode of writing, like description, essays are usually developed using several modes of writing to support the single point.
 
——摘自《美国大学英语写作》(第九版)