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短文写作过程

1. Prewriting
        There are five prewriting techniques that will help you think about and develop a topic and get words on paper: (1) free writing, (2) questioning,(3) making a list, (4) clustering, and (5) preparing a scratch outline. These techniques help you think about and create material, and they are a central part of the writing process.
 
2. Writing a First Draft
        When you write a first draft, be prepared to put in additional thoughts and details that did not emerge during prewriting.
        (1) Don’t worry if you hit a snag. Just leave a blank space or add a comment such as “Do later” and press on to finish the essay.
        (2) Don’t worry yet about grammar, punctuation, or spelling. You don’t want to take time correcting words or sentences that you may decide to remove later.
        (3) Instead, make it your goal to state your thesis clearly and develop the content of your essay with plenty of specific details.
 
3.Revising
        Revising means rewriting an essay, building on what has already been done, to make it stronger. Revising a rough draft three or four times is often at the heart of the writing process. There are two stages to the revising process:
        (1) revising content
        (2) revising sentences
 
4. Editing
        After you have revised your essay for content and style, you are ready to edit—check for and correct—errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, sentence structure, word usage, and spelling.
        (1) Remember that eliminating sentence-skill mistakes will improve an average essay and help ensure a strong grade on a good essay.
        (2)Further, as you get into the habit of checking your writing, you will also get into the habit of using the sentence skills consistently. They are an integral part of clear and effective writing.
 
——摘自《美国大学英语写作》(第九版)