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短文的常见结构

Introductory Paragraph
  1. The introductory paragraph of an essay should start with several sentences that attract the reader’s interest.
  2. It should then advance the central idea, or thesis, that will be developed in the essay. 
  3. The thesis often includes a plan of development—a “preview” of the major points that will support the thesis.In some cases, however, the plan of development is omitted.
 
Body: Supporting Paragraphs
  1. Many essays have three supporting points, developed at length over three separate paragraphs. However, more developed essays require four or more body paragraphs to support the thesis. This is very common in essays with thesis statements that omit a plan of development. 
  2. Each of the supporting paragraphs should begin with a topic sentence that states the point to be detailed in that paragraph. Just as a thesis provides a focus for the entire essay, the topic sentence provides a focus for a supporting paragraph.
 
Concluding Paragraph
  1. The concluding paragraph often summarizes the essay by briefly restating the thesisand, at times, the main supporting points. 
  2. In addition, the writer often presents a concluding thought about the subject of the paper.
 
——摘自《美国大学英语写作》(第九版)